TERMS USED WITHIN THE RUG INDUSTRY

 
Allover Design: Continuous design throughout the field of the rug.

Aubusson: French design flat weave rug normally with a floral center medallion and pastel colors.

Border: A design that surrounds the field in a rug and forms a visual frame for main design.

Caucasian: Rugs were mainly woven in Azerbaijan, which is part of the Caucasus Mountain region.

Chemical Dyes: Modern synthetic dyes used in rugs woven after 1935.

Cloth Backed Rug: Normally found on the back of an Indian or Chinese tufted rug. The material is called monk's cloth and hides the unsightly glued tufts.

Color Run: The term used to describe the migration of one color into another. Red and blue are the usual culprits.

Dhurrie: A flat-woven rug from India usually made of cotton or wool.

Embossing: A process of carving around a design or symbol to enhance the look of the rug. Commonly done in some Chinese and Tibet rugs.

Field: The part of a rug’s design surrounded by the border or borders. The field may be blank or contain medallions or an overall pattern.

Flat-Weave: Describes a rug that has a flat pile, which includes Dhurrie, Jajim, Kilim and Soumak.

Foundation: The backing of the rug composed of the warp and weft strings. It is made of cotton, wool or silk.

Fringe: The ends of the rug. Warps extending from each end of a rug which are treated in several ways to prevent the wefts and knots from unraveling.

Garden Design: Panel designs throughout the field woven with floral motifs, particularly found in a Persian Bahktiari.

Herati: A rosette surrounded by a fish pattern repeating throughout the field of a rug.

Kilim: A tapestry-like woven rug. It is a flat rug with no pile.

Knot: A knot is formed when wool, cotton or silk yarn is looped around the warp threads. There are different procedures for knotting and each knot type has a name, for example there is a Turkish/Ghiordes knot, Persian/Sennah knot, and the Jufti.

Knots per square inch: Number of knots per square inch rates the knot quality. Usually noted by the K.P.S.I. designation (ex. K.P.S.I. 240).

Kork Wool: The very finest quality wool obtained from the shoulder and flanks of shearling lambs.

Loom: A wooden structure that holds the warp and weft threads for weaving the rug. It can be vertical and horizontal. The height and width of the loom determines the rug size.

Medallion: The large enclosed portion of a design, usually in the center of the rug field. Typical shapes are diamonds, octagons and hexagons.

Mori: The weaving technique of certain Pakistani and Indian rugs.

Nap: Top or body of the rug where the knot ends are cut, normally made of wool or silk.

Overcast sides: Technique of over-rounding wool on the non-fringe sides of a rug.

Oxidation: The chemical reaction that occurs when excess sunlight exposure and age can change rug colors. The colors usually affected are brown or black. Generally occurs in vegetable dyed rugs.

Persian Knot: An asymmetrical knot that is looped around one thread with only a loose half-turn around the other thread.

Pile: The nap of the rug or the tufts remaining after the knotted yarns are clipped.

Plain Weave: The simplest interlacing of warp and weft.

Prayer Rug: A rug with a representation of mosque or arched prayer area. Columns may be shown supporting the arch with a lamp hanging from the arch’s apex.

Programmed Rugs: City woven rugs that have the same design in different sizes.

Saffron: Natural dye use to obtain a yellow color.

Soumak: A flat-weave rug made from a technique that produces a herringbone effect. This special weaving technique is also known as weft wrapping. Looks similar to embroidery work.

Tapestry Weave: Any variety of weaves where the pattern is created by ground wefts that do not run from end to end.

Tea Wash: A process of washing a rug with tea to soften the colors and give an antique appearance.

Turkish Knot: Tied around two adjacent warp threads.

Vegetable dyes: Dyes derived from insects or from the earth, which includes madder root, indigo, milkweed, pomegranate, osage, cutch and cochineal.

Warp: Starting part of a rug where wool, cotton or silk strands are attached to a loom vertically, running the length of a rug and are interlaced with wefts.

Weft: Wool, cotton or silk yarns inserted horizontally over and under the warp forming the foundation of the rug.

Weft-faced: A rug where the weft yarns are more closely spaced than the warps.

Whipstich: A stitch used to over-case and to lock the final weft to rug ends.

Wool Foundation: A rug is started with a wool warp and weft.

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